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What You Should Know When Consulting Internal Diseases

What You Should Know When Consulting Internal Diseases - Internal disease consultation is an examination procedure carried out to check conditions and disorders of internal organs in the body, and diagnose internal diseases that may be suffered by the patient. The results of the consultation will be used to determine and plan the type of treatment that is appropriate for the patient's condition. Internal medicine is a medical specialty that deals with various types of medical conditions or diseases that affect the performance and function of internal organs in the human body. Doctors who specifically deal with internal medicine are called internists. The main purpose of an internal medicine consultation is to diagnose, treat, and prevent various types of internal medicine.

Types of Internal Medicine

Following are some of the divisions (sub-specialties) of the internal medicine branch, and examples of the types of diseases handled:

What You Should Know When Consulting Internal Diseases

  • Immunological allergy, which is a branch of internal medicine related to allergies and disorders of the immune system. Examples of diseases: asthma, allergic rhinitis, and urticaria or hives.
  • Gastroenterohepatologi, which is a branch of internal medicine related to disorders of the digestive system and liver. Examples of diseases: gastritis, hepatitis, and pancreatitis.
  • Geriatric, which is a branch of internal medicine related to medical disorders experienced by elderly patients due to the aging process. Examples of diseases: dementia and osteoarthritis
  • Kidney hypertension, which is a branch of internal medicine related to disorders of the kidney organs and high blood pressure. Examples of diseases: chronic or acute kidney failure, urinary tract infections, and hypertension
  • Medical oncology hematologist, which is a branch of internal medicine related to blood disorders or disorders and cancer. Examples of diseases: anemia, leukemia, and lymphoma.
  • Cardiology, which is a branch of internal medicine related to disorders of the heart organ. Examples of diseases: heart failure, coronary heart disease, and valvular heart disease
  • Endocrine metabolism, which is a branch of internal medicine related to disorders of the body's metabolic processes. Examples of diseases: diabetes, thyroid hormone disorders, and high cholesterol
  • Psychosomatic, which is a branch of internal medicine related to the types of diseases that arise or are worsened due to mental disorders. Example disease: irritable bowel syndrome
  • Pulmonology, which is a branch of internal medicine related to disorders of the lung organs. Examples of diseases: tuberculosis, pneumonia, and bronchitis
  • Rheumatology, which is a branch of internal medicine related to disorders of the joints and autoimmune conditions. Examples of diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, tendonitis, and lupus.
  • Tropik infection, which is a branch of internal medicine related to various types of diseases or infections that generally appear in the tropics. Examples of diseases: malaria, elephantiasis (filariasis) and dengue fever.

Before Internal Medicine Consultation

There are several things that need to be prepared before the patient has an internal medicine consultation. This action is important to do to facilitate the process of examination and diagnosis of patients by specialists in internal medicine. These things include:

  • Overall health history, both diseases, and allergies that are being or ever suffered by the patient. The patient should also carry all previous examinations, such as X-rays, laboratory test results, and the results of CT scans or MRIs that have been undertaken.
  • Types of drugs or herbal products that are or have been consumed. The patient should also bring the medicine that is consumed so that the doctor can know more clearly about the drug.
  • Reference letter. Patients should also bring a referral letter from a general practitioner or other specialist doctors. A referral letter can be an initial description of internal medicine doctors regarding the patient's condition, treatment instructions, and further treatment.

Internal Medicine Consultation Procedure

There are several types of examinations carried out during a patient undergoing an internal disease consultation. These types of checks include:

  • Medical history examination. The earliest examination stage in the internal medicine consultation process. At this stage, the doctor will ask questions about several things to the patient, including:
    • Complaints about health problems experienced by patients at this time.
    • Patient's medical history, including health problems that have been suffered by patients recently or in the past. This examination includes several things, namely:
      • Type of treatment therapy that has been undertaken.
      • Operations that have ever been passed.
      • Complications or trauma patients have experienced.
    • History of drug use, including drugs that are currently or have been taken, both prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines, and herbs.
    • Family medical history, including various health problems that are being experienced by parents, siblings, and children of patients.
    • Lifestyle and social life history, including smoking history, alcohol consumption, drug use, work, pet ownership, and hobbies.
  • Physical examination. Physical examination is done to detect abnormalities in the patient's body. As a first step, the doctor will usually do a weighing and height measurement. Furthermore, the doctor will examine several things, including:
    • Examination of vital signs, including measurement of blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory frequency.
    • Further physical examination, which is an examination of a number of body parts to detect abnormalities or disorders that may be experienced by the patient. Physical examination includes:
      • Head and neck. Examination to detect abnormalities or disorders of the throat and tonsils. The quality of teeth and gums can also provide information about overall patient health. The head and neck examination also include the ears, nose, eyes, lymph nodes, thyroid, and neck blood vessels.
      • Heart. Your doctor will use a stethoscope to detect several conditions, such as irregular heartbeats or abnormal heart sounds.
      • Lungs Examination to detect abnormal sounds that may come from the lung organs.
      • Stomach. Examination to detect the size of the liver and the presence of stomach fluid by pressing the patient's stomach, as well as listening to sounds in the intestine using a stethoscope.
      • Nervous and motor system. The examination which includes nerves, muscle strength, reflexes, and balance.
      • Skin. Examination of the condition of the skin and nails because it can show interference or disease in other body parts.
  • Supporting investigation. If needed, the doctor will conduct a supporting examination to confirm the diagnosis of an illness. There are several types of supporting examinations, including:
    • Laboratory examination. The examination is carried out by taking blood, urine, or other types of fluid samples to then undergo the analysis process in the laboratory. Several types of laboratory examinations include:
      • Blood test. Tests are carried out to detect the number of blood cells (complete blood count), chemicals in the blood, blood sugar, cholesterol, liver function, thyroid hormones, kidney function, to the level of blood clots.
      • Urine test (urinalysis). Tests are carried out to detect various disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease, and diabetes. Urine tests usually include checking the appearance, specific gravity, and chemical content of the urine.
      • Other body fluids. This examination generally includes sputum examination and feces. Sputum examination is done to detect the risk of infection that may occur in the lungs or respiratory tract. Meanwhile, stool examination is performed to detect abnormalities or disorders that occur in the digestive system of the patient.
      • Biopsy. The test is done by taking samples of body tissue for later analysis in the laboratory.
    • Radiology. This type of examination is carried out to diagnose and treat diseases using light waves, high-frequency sound waves, or magnetic fields. Several types of radiological examinations include:
      • X-ray photos. This type of medical examination uses X-rays to produce images of the inside of the patient's body.
      • Ultrasound is a type of medical examination using high-frequency sound waves to capture images from the inside of a patient's body. Ultrasound allows the doctor to detect abnormalities or disorders that occur in the patient's organs, vessels, or body tissues without having to make an incision.
      • CT scan is a type of examination using a computer and a rotating X-ray machine, so it can produce images of the inner body from various angles in more detail than X-rays. CT scans can be used to visualize various parts of the body, such as the head, shoulders, spine, abdomen, knees, and chest.
      • MRI is a type of examination using magnetic field media to produce detailed images or 3-dimensional images of organs and tissues in the patient's body. MRI machines are shaped like tubes.
After Internal Medicine Consultation

After the patient undergoes a consultation and examination, a specialist in internal medicine will review the results of the examination, laboratory results, and the results of supporting examinations that may be carried out. From all these tests, the specialist doctor will get a decision, namely:
  • Possible diagnosis. Through consultation and examination, internists can determine the possibility of a diagnosis of the symptoms experienced by the patient.
  • Therapy or treatment plan. After the patient has been diagnosed with a disease, the doctor will determine the method or type of therapeutic treatment that suits the condition or disease experienced by the patient. The therapeutic plan is carried out to control symptoms and treat medical disorders experienced by patients. The therapeutic plan can take the form of:
    • Treatment plans, both inpatient or outpatient.
    • Types of medicines to be consumed.
    • Medical measures, such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, physiotherapy, or dialysis.
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