Metrorrhagia, Abnormal Bleeding Outside the Menstrual Cycle

Body Health

Metrorrhagia is the medical term for bleeding that occurs between menstrual periods. This condition can be caused by many things, such as stress and nutritional deficiencies. To treat metrorrhagia, the doctor will provide treatment according to the cause. Metrorrhagia includes a type of abnormal bleeding from the vagina. This condition can be experienced by women of all ages. However, it is more common in women aged 45 and over than teenagers. 

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Metrorrhagia, Abnormal Bleeding Outside the Menstrual Cycle

Apart from the age factor, there are several other factors that can also increase a woman's risk of experiencing metrorrhagia. These factors include sexually transmitted diseases, tumors in the uterus, and history of abortion. Unlike menorrhagia which results in heavy menstrual bleeding, metrorrhagia results in bleeding outside the menstrual cycle.

Causes of Metrorrhagia

Metrorrhagia can be caused by many things. Following are some of the causes:

1. Stress

Stress can cause the body to produce the stress hormone or cortisol. This hormone will affect the body's ability to produce hormone levels that trigger menstruation, namely estrogen and progesterone.

Later, it can disrupt the menstrual cycle and possibly cause bleeding between menstrual periods.

2. First menstruation

The first menstruation (menarche) can also cause metrorrhagia. This is because when you first experience menstruation, hormone levels in a woman's body are not yet balanced, so it is normal for her menstrual cycle to not be smooth.

This condition also often results in bleeding outside the menstrual cycle. Bleeding that appears is usually in the form of blood spots which can be brown or bright red in color.

3. Malnutrition

Women who are malnourished or malnourished tend to have irregular menstrual cycles and experience abnormal bleeding outside of the menstrual cycle. The cause of metrorrhagia in conditions of malnutrition is because the body does not have enough nutrition and hormones to produce eggs (ovulation) and trigger menstruation.

4. Contraception

Use of contraception, such as birth control pills, which contain a combination of estrogen and progesterone can also cause metrorrhagia. Early use or discontinuation of hormonal contraceptives may result in extra-menstrual bleeding.

5. Menopause

When entering menopause, women will experience changes in hormone levels that trigger menstruation in their bodies. This condition can eventually lead to metrorrhagia.

6. Blood thinning drugs

Consumption of drugs, such as blood thinners, can also cause metrorrhagia. That's because the use of these drugs can increase the risk of a woman experiencing bleeding, including bleeding from the vagina. An example of this type of blood thinner is warfarin.

7. Supplements

In addition to blood thinning drugs, taking certain supplements, such as ginseng, can increase the risk of experiencing bleeding outside of menstruation. There is no explanation for this, but it is suspected that certain substances in ginseng can affect reproductive hormone levels.

It should be noted that metrorrhagia can also be a symptom that is a sign of certain health problems or disorders. These health problems and disorders include polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, inflammation of the cervix, inflammation of the uterus, cervical cancer, and vaginal cancer.

Treatment of Metrorrhagia

In general, treatment of metrorrhagia is carried out by doctors according to the underlying cause. The following are several treatment options that doctors can make to treat metrorrhagia:

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), to reduce the large blood loss and stomach cramps that may accompany metrorrhagia
  • Progesterone, to cope with changes in hormone levels and stop abnormal bleeding
  • Changing the type of contraceptive, if metrorrhagia is caused by taking combination birth control pills
  • Curette, if metrorrhagia is accompanied by prolonged bleeding and thickening of the uterine wall

That is an explanation of the causes and treatments for metrorrhagia that are generally recommended by doctors. Even though it seems trivial, this condition needs to be addressed and should not be ignored, especially if it has disrupted the quality of life.

Therefore, if you often experience bleeding or spots that are dark brown, red, or pink outside of menstruation, you are advised to see a doctor to determine whether the cause of the condition is metrorrhagia and get the right treatment.

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