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Amoebiasis, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Complications

Amoebiasis is a parasitic infection of the intestine caused by the parasitic Entamoeba histolytica or abbreviated as E. histolytica. Entamoeba is a combination of several single parasitic textures and can live inside or the surface of human and animal skin. Just like one-celled microorganisms in general, entamoeba moves by changing the structure of the body and can multiply by itself.

Overall, there are 6 types of Entamoeba, but only E.histolytica parasites can make a person sick. This parasite is commonly found in damp, runny and muddy environments.

Anyone is at risk of getting Amoebiasis infection. However, this risk is higher in people who live or visit tropical countries or areas with poor sanitation. In addition, someone who has a low immune system and men who have same-s*x relationships are also at risk of contracting this disease.

Amoebiasis, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Complications

Causes of Amoebiasis

Amoebiasis infection occurs when the E. histolytica parasite enters the human body and settles in the intestine. These parasites are generally transmitted through contaminated food and beverages. In addition, a person can also get infected after touching the soil, water, fertilizer or the hands of someone who has been exposed to feces containing the parasite. Transmission can also occur in people who have an*l s*x, oral s*x, or in people who do colonic irrigation.

In general, the E. histolytica parasite is an inactive parasite that can stay for months in damp areas or areas that have been contaminated with infected feces. Parasites that enter the human body will immediately gather in the intestine and switch to their active cycle (trophozoite phase). The active parasites will then move to the large intestine. When the parasite hits the part of the intestinal wall, the sufferer can experience problems such as feces accompanied by blood, diarrhea, inflammation of the large intestine (colitis), and damage to the intestinal tissue.

Someone who has contracted is at risk of developing severe Amoebiasis infection if:

Causes of Amoebiasis

Amoebiasis infection occurs when the E. histolytica parasite enters the human body and settles in the intestine. These parasites are generally transmitted through contaminated food and beverages. In addition, a person can also get infected after touching the soil, water, fertilizer or the hands of someone who has been exposed to feces containing the parasite. Transmission can also occur in people who have anal sex, oral sex, or in people who do colonic irrigation.

In general, the E. histolytica parasite is an inactive parasite that can stay for months in damp areas or areas that have been contaminated with infected feces. Parasites that enter the human body will immediately gather in the intestine and switch to their active cycle (trophozoite phase). The active parasites will then move to the large intestine. When the parasite hits the part of the intestinal wall, the sufferer can experience problems such as feces accompanied by blood, diarrhea, inflammation of the large intestine (colitis), and damage to the intestinal tissue.

Someone who has contracted is at risk of developing severe Amoebiasis infection if:

  • Often consume alcohol.
  • Malnutrition.
  • Have cancer.
  • Is pregnant.
  • Using corticosteroid drugs that can suppress the body's immune system.
  • Frequent travel to tropical countries or infected environments.

Symptoms of Amoebiasis

Symptoms of Amoebiasis generally begin to be felt by a person within 7-28 days after being infected with parasites. Also keep in mind that not all sufferers will feel symptoms, and most people will only
experience symptoms that are quite mild, such as:
  • Diarrhea.
  • Pain to stomach cramps.
  • Dispose of excessive wind.
  • Easy to feel tired.

In certain cases, parasites can penetrate the mucosa of the intestinal wall and cause injury, or even spread to the liver through blood vessels and cause liver abscesses. The symptoms that can be felt when you have entered a severe condition like this are:

  • Pain when the stomach is pressed.
  • Dysentery or diarrhea with feces mixed with mucus and blood.
  • High fever.
  • Throws up.
  • Swelling in the abdomen or liver.
  • Intestinal perforation or appearance of a hole in the intestine.
  • jaundice.

Diagnosis of Amoebiasis

In making a diagnosis of Amoebiasis, the doctor will conduct a series of physical examinations and ask what activities the patient has previously performed, including the locations visited. In addition, several further tests will also be carried out to strengthen the diagnosis, such as:

  • Laboratory examination. The patient's stool sample will be examined in the laboratory to find the presence of the histolytica parasite. Sampling for this examination is ideally carried out several times on different days.
  • Blood test. This method is recommended to suspect histolytica parasites in the intestinal wall or other body organs. This test can also be done to check related conditions, such as anemia.
  • Colonoscopy. The doctor will evaluate the condition of the colon (large intestine) and the number of parasites that exist by using a special tool such as a thin hose equipped with a camera. If needed, a liver biopsy (taking liver tissue samples for examination in the laboratory) can also be done in this procedure.
  • Scanning, such as a CT scan or ultrasound, to check if there is inflammation in a particular organ.
  • Needle test. This test is usually done when there is a buildup of pus (abscess) in the liver.

Amoebiasis Treatment

In general, the drugs given to Amoebiasis are:

  • Antibiotic drugs, such as metronidazole or tinidazole, to kill bacteria in the liver or other organs. This drug is usually given along with anti-parasites, such as diloxanide furoate.
  • Anti-nausea medication for patients who experience symptoms of nausea and vomiting.

Amoebiasis patients will usually be advised to consume lots of water and ORS to replace lost fluids. If the condition is severe enough, the doctor will give intravenous fluids at the hospital.
In certain cases, surgery will be performed if there is a rupture of the liver abscess or if there is a hole in the intestine.

Amoebiasis complications

The following are some potential complications that can occur in people who are not treated with Amoebiasis or whose condition is severe, such as:

  • Anemia or intestinal bleeding in patients who experience inflammation of the large intestine.
  • Obstruction of the intestine due to clots of tissue in the intestinal wall.
  • Formation of abscesses in the liver after years of contracting the histolytica parasite.
  • Infection of infected organs, including the brain and central nervous system.
  • Dead.

Prevention of Amoebiasis

The following steps can be taken to prevent transmission of Amoebiasis infection:

  • Wash hands using liquid soap after urinating or defecating. This also needs to be done after changing the baby's diaper and before processing food.
  • Wash vegetables or fruit thoroughly before consumption.
  • Wash the cookware thoroughly before use.
  • Boil water until boiling before drinking.
  • Do not consume milk or processed products, such as cheese, without being cooked or pasteurized.
  • Avoid consuming food or drinks that are not guaranteed to be clean, for example, food sold on the roadside.
  • Do not share toiletries, such as towels or sponges, with anyone.
Title: Amoebiasis, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Complications | Written by: Body Health | Rating Blog: 5 out of 5

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