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Presbiopi, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications

Presbyopia is a condition of the eye that loses the ability to focus gradually, to see objects at close range. Presbyopia is also one of the things that will be felt by humans as part of the body's natural aging process. Usually, someone just realizes that he is suffering from presbyopia when he has to keep his arms away so he can read a book or newspaper.

Presbyopia symptoms

Presbyopia develops gradually, so someone sometimes just realizes the symptoms after passing the age of 40 years. Some of the symptoms commonly experienced by presbyopic are:

  • Habits of squinting
  • Need brighter lights when reading.
  • Difficulty reading small letters.
  • Blurred vision when reading at a normal distance.
  • Headache or eye strain after reading at close range.
  • The tendency to hold objects further, so that the letters are more clearly read.

Causes of Presbyopia

The viewing process starts when the eye catches the light that reflects off an object. The light will penetrate the clear membrane of the eye (cornea), and forward to the lens located behind the iris. Then, the lens will bend light to focus on the retina, which will turn light into an electrical signal. This electrical signal will be sent to the brain, which will process the signal into an image.

The eyepiece is surrounded by muscles that are elastic so that they can change the shape of the lens to focus light. But as you get older, the muscles around the eyepiece will lose their elasticity and harden. The condition of hardening of the lens muscles is what causes presbyopia. The lens becomes stiff and cannot change shape, making the light entering the retina out of focus.

Presbiopi, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications


Risk factors for presbyopia

There are several factors that increase a person's risk of suffering from presbyopia, namely:

  • Age. Almost everyone will experience presbyopic symptoms after the age of 40 years.
  • Drugs. Some drugs such as antihistamines, antidepressants, and diuretics are associated with premature presbyopic symptoms, namely presbyopia in individuals under 40 years of age.
  • Disease. Diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or heart and blood vessel disease can increase the risk of premature presbyopia.

Presbyopia diagnosis

To diagnose presbyopia, the doctor will carry out a refraction test eye examination. A refraction test will determine whether the patient has presbyopia or other eye disorders, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.

The doctor will also give eye drops to dilate the pupils of the eye, to make it easier to examine the inside of the eye. In patients with eye disease risk factors, such as diabetes, eye examinations should be done more often.

The doctor will also recommend a complete eye examination periodically, at the following ages:

  • Under 40 years: every 5-10 years
  • 40-54 years: every 2-4 years
  • 55-64 years: every 1-3 years
  • 65 years and above every 1-2 years.

Presbyopia Treatment

Presbyopia treatment is intended to help the eye focus on objects at close range. Some methods for treating presbyopia are:

Eyeglasses

Using glasses is a simple and safe way to handle presbyopia. Patients with good eye conditions before experiencing presbyopia can wear glasses without a prescription. But in patients who already have eye disorders before presbyopia, the doctor will prescribe glasses with a special lens.

Contact lens

Patients who do not want to wear glasses can wear contact lenses. However, contact lenses cannot be used in sufferers of eyelid disorders, tear duct disorders, and dry eyes.

Refractive surgery

The ophthalmologist can perform several surgical procedures that can help treat presbyopia, namely:

  • Conductive keratoplasty. This procedure uses radiofrequency energy to heat the dots around the cornea to change the curvature of the cornea and improve the eye's focusing ability. However, the results are very varied and can be only temporary.
  • Laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK), a procedure that uses a laser to reshape the outer layer of the cornea.
  • Laser-assisted in situ keratomileuses (LASIK). This procedure aims to form monovision vision, which is one eye to see far, and one eye to see at close range.
  • Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Just like LASEK, PRK also uses lasers to reshape the cornea.

Lens implant

This procedure aims to replace the patient's eye lens with a synthetic lens (intraocular lens). In some people, the lens of the eye can improve the vision of presbyopia sufferers, both when looking far or near. However, sometimes lens implants can cause a decrease in the eye's ability to see at close range, so reading glasses are still needed.

Corneal inlay

The corneal inlay is the act of inserting a small plastic ring on each cornea to change the corneal arch. This ring works by focusing light on the cornea so that the patient is able to see objects at close range. If the patient feels the results are unsatisfactory, the patient can ask the doctor to remove the ring and choose another procedure.

Presbyopia complications

If left untreated, presbyopia can cause complications in the form of astigmatism, which is a blurred vision due to imperfect corneal curvature. Other complications that can occur are myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness). Presbyopia is a condition of the eye that loses the ability to focus gradually, to see objects at close range. Presbyopia is also one of the things that will be felt by humans as part of the body's natural aging process. Usually, someone just realizes that he is suffering from presbyopia when he has to keep his arms away so he can read a book or newspaper.

Presbyopia symptoms

Presbyopia develops gradually, so someone sometimes just realizes the symptoms after passing the age of 40 years. Some of the symptoms commonly experienced by presbyopic are:

  • Habits of squinting
  • Need brighter lights when reading.
  • Difficulty reading small letters.
  • Blurred vision when reading at a normal distance.
  • Headache or eye strain after reading at close range.
  • The tendency to hold objects further, so that the letters are more clearly read.

Causes of Presbyopia

The viewing process starts when the eye catches the light that reflects off an object. The light will penetrate the clear membrane of the eye (cornea), and forward to the lens located behind the iris. Then, the lens will bend light to focus on the retina, which will turn light into an electrical signal. This electrical signal will be sent to the brain, which will process the signal into an image.

The eyepiece is surrounded by muscles that are elastic so that they can change the shape of the lens to focus light. But as you get older, the muscles around the eyepiece will lose their elasticity and harden. The condition of hardening of the lens muscles is what causes presbyopia. The lens becomes stiff and cannot change shape, making the light entering the retina out of focus.

Risk factors for presbyopia

There are several factors that increase a person's risk of suffering from presbyopia, namely:

  • Age. Almost everyone will experience presbyopic symptoms after the age of 40 years.
  • Drugs. Some drugs such as antihistamines, antidepressants, and diuretics are associated with premature presbyopic symptoms, namely presbyopia in individuals under 40 years of age.
  • Disease. Diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or heart and blood vessel disease can increase the risk of premature presbyopia.

Presbyopia diagnosis

To diagnose presbyopia, the doctor will carry out a refraction test eye examination. A refraction test will determine whether the patient has presbyopia or other eye disorders, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.

The doctor will also give eye drops to dilate the pupils of the eye, to make it easier to examine the inside of the eye. In patients with eye disease risk factors, such as diabetes, eye examinations should be done more often.

The doctor will also recommend a complete eye examination periodically, at the following ages:

  • Under 40 years: every 5-10 years
  • 40-54 years: every 2-4 years
  • 55-64 years: every 1-3 years
  • 65 years and above every 1-2 years.

Presbyopia Treatment

Presbyopia treatment is intended to help the eye focus on objects at close range. Some methods for treating presbyopia are:

Eyeglasses

Using glasses is a simple and safe way to handle presbyopia. Patients with good eye conditions before experiencing presbyopia can wear glasses without a prescription. But in patients who already have eye disorders before presbyopia, the doctor will prescribe glasses with a special lens.

Contact lens

Patients who do not want to wear glasses can wear contact lenses. However, contact lenses cannot be used in sufferers of eyelid disorders, tear duct disorders, and dry eyes.

Refractive surgery

The ophthalmologist can perform several surgical procedures that can help treat presbyopia, namely:

  • Conductive keratoplasty. This procedure uses radiofrequency energy to heat the dots around the cornea to change the curvature of the cornea and improve the eye's focusing ability. However, the results are very varied and can be only temporary.
  • Laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK), a procedure that uses a laser to reshape the outer layer of the cornea.
  • Laser-assisted in situ keratomileuses (LASIK). This procedure aims to form monovision vision, which is one eye to see far, and one eye to see at close range.
  • Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Just like LASEK, PRK also uses lasers to reshape the cornea.

Lens implant

This procedure aims to replace the patient's eye lens with a synthetic lens (intraocular lens). In some people, the lens of the eye can improve the vision of presbyopia sufferers, both when looking far or near. However, sometimes lens implants can cause a decrease in the eye's ability to see at close range, so reading glasses are still needed.

Corneal inlay

The corneal inlay is the act of inserting a small plastic ring on each cornea to change the corneal arch. This ring works by focusing light on the cornea so that the patient is able to see objects at close range. If the patient feels the results are unsatisfactory, the patient can ask the doctor to remove the ring and choose another procedure.

Presbyopia complications

If left untreated, presbyopia can cause complications in the form of astigmatism, which is a blurred vision due to imperfect corneal curvature. Other complications that can occur are myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness).
Title: Presbiopi, Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications | Written by: Body Health | Rating Blog: 5 out of 5

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